Patent ductus arteriosus epidemiology and demographics

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Editor-In-Chief: C. Michael Gibson, M.S., M.D. [1]; Associate Editor-In-Chief: Priyamvada Singh, M.B.B.S. [2], Cafer Zorkun, M.D., Ph.D. [3], Assistant Editor-In-Chief: Kristin Feeney, B.S. [4]

Overview

The PDA is commonly found in infants and constitutes only 2% of all congenital defects found in adults. The incidence is greater is in children who are born prematurely with history of perinatal asphyxia and infants with congenital rubella.

Epidemiology and Demographics

Prevalence

  • The PDA is commonly found in infants and constitutes only 2% of all congenital defects found in adults.
  • It is an isolated defect in 75% of cases, and is isolated in almost all adult cases.

Incidence

  • In the United States, the estimated incidence in children born at term is between 0.02% and 0.06% of live births.
  • The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus has increased over the past few decades. This is in part due to increased survival in the premature infants.
  • The incidence is greater in children who are born-
    • Prematurely, with a history of perinatal asphyxia. Perinatal asphyxia delays the closure of the ductus. Approximately, 20% of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome have a patent ductus arteriosus. In babies who are less than 1500 g at birth, many studies show the incidence of a PDA to exceed 30%. The increased patency in these groups is thought to be due to both hypoxia in babies with respiratory distress and immature ductal closure mechanisms in premature babies.
    • Increased incidences in infants with congenital rubella.
    • Children born at high altitude.

Gender

  • The female-to-male ratio is 3:1

References


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